Ergonomic Problems of Eyestrain is the most common that most computer users all over the world experience. A number of symptoms associated with Ergonomic problems of eyestrain have been experienced and proved worldwide.

Let’s have a look at some of the symptoms related to vision here:

1. Visual fatigue
2. Blurred or double vision
3. Burning and watering eyes
4. Headaches and frequent changes in prescription glasses

This is now called under the nickname, computer vision syndrome or C.V.S.

American Optometric Association defines, C.V.S as “A complex of eye and vision Problems which are experienced during and related to computer use”.

There is a basic Ergonomic problems with the prolonged viewing of computer screens. The nature of screen characters and images necessitates subtle but continual refocusing. If one has to regularly switch the attention between a close screen and more distant workspace objects things become more complicated. C.V.S results from this change in dynamics.

Another cause of Ergonomic problems is that the average person blinks approximately 4 times per minute, far less than the natural rate of 22 blinks per minute. This lower blink rate causes eye moisture to evaporate, resulting in a "dry eye" condition . The symptoms of dry eye are sensations such as itching, burning, blurring, heavy eyelids, fatigue and double vision.

There is no evidence yet that computer work causes permanent eye damage. But the temporary discomfort that may occur can reduce productivity, cause lost work time, and reduce job satisfaction and self-confidence of the user.

In most cases eyestrain results from visual fatigue or glare from bright windows or strong light sources, light reflecting off the display screen, or poor display screen contrast.
Methods to Avoid Ergonomic problems: Eyestrain

1. Give ample exercise to the eyes by periodically focusing on objects at varying distances to avoid Ergonomic Problems of eyes strain
2. Blink the eyes regularly
3. Try to keep the air around you moist – For instance, you can use plants, open pans of water or a humidifier (spider plants are said to be particularly good for this and removing chemical vapors from the air)
4. Adjust the screen height/seating so that while you are comfortably seated, your eyes are in line with the top of the monitor screen
5. Adjust the brightness control on your monitor for comfort. Focusing on the monitor for a long time with full brightness can cause Ergonomic Problems of eyestrain.
6. Adjust the contrast on your monitor to make the characters distinct from the background
7. Adjust the refresh rate of your monitor to stop it flickering
8. You need to position monitors in order to avoid glare (e.g. not directly in front of windows)
9. Keep your monitor screen clean to avoid Ergonomic Problems
10. Keep the screen and document holder (if you use one) at the same distance from your eyes
11. Try to place the reference materials as close to the screen as possible. You need to service, repair, or replace monitors that flicker or have insufficient clarity
12. Do regular eye testing at least once every 2 years and more frequently if necessary - especially if you are experiencing eye Problems related to using display equipment. Specify the distance from your eyes to the monitor to your optician and get information regarding special lenses or the use of bifocals.
13. Wear rigid rather than soft contact lens

Ergonomic Problems : Vision


1. Reading and/or using a computer causes eyes to tear, itch, or hurt.
2. Jerky eye movements.
3. Eyes that cross or turn in or out.
4. Squinting, eye rubbing, or excessive blinking.
5. Blurred vision.
6. Light sensitivity after reading.
7. Double vision.
8. Headaches, dizziness, nausea, or fatigues easily after reading.
9. Head tilting, closing or blocking one eye when reading.
10. Skips lines or loses place when reading.
11. Difficulty tracking moving objects.
12. Misaligning letters or numbers.
13. Unusual posture or moving head closely to see book or paper.
14. Avoidance of near work such as reading.
15. While reading, you feel that words, letters, or lines run together or jump around.
16. Difficulty concentrating or comprehending reading material.
17. Persistent reversals of numbers, letters, or words after second grade.
18. Writes crooked or poorly spaced.
19. Poor eye hand coordination.
20. Inconsistent or poor sports performance.

Vision therapy, an optometric specialty treatment,has been clinically shown to be an effective treatment for accommodative disorders (non-presbyopic eye focusing Problems), binocular dysfunction (inefficient eye teaming), ocular motility dysfunctions (eye movement disorders), strabismus (turned eye), amblyopia (lazy eye), and perceptual-motor dysfunction.

Many vision disorders can be treated with corrective lenses such as glasses or contacts, while other disorders may be most effectively treated with optometric vision therapy or with a combination of the two.

Visual skills such as accommodation (eye focusing), binocularity (eye coordination/eye teaming), oculomotor (eye movement skills), and eye hand coordination are neuro-muscular abilities. These visual skills are controlled by the muscles inside and outside the eye and are networked with the brain.

Neuro-muscular abilities are learned and are developmental in nature. There is a general misconception that weak visual skills will go away with time. But, studies show that it has to be treated properly. Binocularity (eye coordination/eye teaming), oculomotor (eye movement skills), and eye hand coordination can be retrained to perform more efficiently at almost any age. Accommodation (eye focusing) can be improved until the person’s age is 40.

Optometric vision therapy is a set of procedures that are individualized and prescribed by an optometrist to teach a patient how to improve a weak or nonexistent visual skill or processing skill through the use of lenses, prisms, special computer programs, and other treatment techniques. This is a treatment to improve a specific vision disorder; it is not a treatment for dyslexia, learning disabilities, or attention deficit disorder.

Weak visual and processing skills reduce the individual's ability to quickly and accurately comprehend the reading material. Reading and learning become easier after the skills are improved through the treatment of vision therapy .

The visual abilities, which are needed in sports, can be trained through vision therapy to reach their maximum potential. Computer vision syndrome (CVS) may be improved by vision therapy, prescription glasses, or modifications to the workstation. Users can seek the help of an optometrist to determine if their accommodative (eye focusing) or binocularity (eye coordination/eye teaming) skills are adequate.

Research studies have shown that children and adults with amblyopia (lazy eye) and strabismus (turned eye) may be able to improve their visual performance and function through vision therapy. For many years, it was thought that amblyopia (lazy eye) and strabismus (turned eye) was only amenable to treatment during the "critical period".

This is the period up to age seven or eight years. However, recent research has demonstrated that effective treatment can occur at any age, but the length of the treatment period increases dramatically, if this condition has existed for a prolonged time prior to treatment.

The prognosis for strabismus can vary from very poor to excellent depending on the type of deviation, type and number of visual adaptations (suppression, abnormal retinal correspondence, or amblyopia), duration of condition, and prior interventions. A study by Dr. Gary Etting, O.D., F.C.O.V.D. in 1978 showed that 57% of patients with constant esotropia and 82% with constant exotropia had a functional and cosmetic cure with vision therapy.

The cure rate was 100% for patients with intermittent esotropia and 85% for patients with intermittent exotropia. Individuals with mild or no amblyopia, normal retinal correspondence, some depth perception, and a deviation that remains essentially the same in all positions of gaze will have a better prognosis than someone who does not. If you want to find out whether this would be an effective treatment for you, do consult an optometrist who specializes in vision therapy.

People suffering from brain injuries and certain types of vision Problems can benefit a lot from vision therapy. The Neuro-Optometric Rehabilitation Association International, Inc. (NORA) provides more information about various treatment options available for those with vision Problems and brain injuries.

Vision therapy is a very old technique. Physicians in the mid-1800s originally introduced many of the techniques that are used today. Modern Optometric Vision Therapy was pioneered in the United States in 1928 by optometrist A. M. Skeffington. Throughout the years, vision therapy has been called various names such as visual training, orthoptics, or eye exercises.

A few insurance companies cover optometric vision therapy, if it is addressing a condition that is classified as a disease such as convergence insufficiency. Vision therapy falls under the area of Major Medical. Insurance companies classify vision therapy as “Orthoptics” with a CPT (procedure) code of 92065.

If this treatment procedure is covered, the percentage of coverage and the number of sessions covered can vary greatly. Vision therapy is not generally covered by vision care plans that simply cover eye examinations, eyeglasses, or contact lenses.
Ergonomic problem : Computer vision syndrome (CVS)

CVS is a condition that affects many computer users. Studies show that approximately 70% of computer workers have vision Problems. The symptoms of CVS include eyestrain, dry or burning eyes, blurred vision, headaches, double vision, distorted color vision, and neck and backaches. This condition can be due to various factors.

One factor is poor visual skills such as accommodative (eye focusing) skills or binocularity (eye coordination/eye teaming) skills. Another factor is the tendency of computer users to stare at monitors for long periods without changing eye focus from time to time. The distance between a computer user and a monitor is another factor. Room lighting, monitor glare, screen color, print color, and print size can also be contributing factors to this condition.

Medical conditions such as amblyopia (lazy eye), strabismus (turned eye), and brain injuries can have a major affect on your vision. Amblyopia causes reduced acuity in the affected eye, poor eye hand coordination, and poor depth perception. Strabismus can cause double vision and poor depth perception.

Brain Injuries, such as Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), Mild Acquired Brain Injury, Mild Closed Head injury, Post-Concussive Syndrome, Cervical Trauma Syndrome, Post Traumatic Vision Syndrome, Stroke, Cerebral Palsy, and Cerebral Vascular Accident, can cause a reduced visual field (reduced peripheral vision), double vision, and other vision Problems.

Summary :
In most organizations, computers are an essential tool to get the work done. Though it creates quite a lot of Ergonomic Problems, with the proper equipment, Ergonomic workstation design, proper techniques and working practices, the risk of Ergonomic Problems can be greatly reduced. The law places certain responsibilities firmly with the employer, however, as individuals there are practical measures we all can and should take to avoid harming our health.

Do you have a condition such as computer vision syndrome (CVS), amblyopia (lazy eye), strabismus (turned eye), or a brain injury?

Vision plays a critical role in our learning, working, and recreation. Vision is more than just having 20/20 eyesight. Vision can be defined as the ability to take in information through our eyes and process the information so that it has meaning.

It is very important that our visual system is efficient because two-thirds of all information we receive is visual. About, 75%-90% of classroom learning comes through our visual system. The visual system is composed of 20 visual abilities. Let’s have a look at these visual abilities:

1. Distance and near acuity : The ability to see clearly at a far distance such as 20 feet, and the ability to see clearly at a near distance such as 16 inches.
2. Accommodation : The ability to adjust focus on objects with various distances.
3. Binocularity: The ability to use both eyes as a team. Proper eye alignment and coordination is necessary so that the eyes can unite two images into one ( fusion), which allows an individual to perceive a single three-dimensional image (depth perception, stereopsis).
4. Oculomotor skills: The ability to quickly and accurately move our eyes. These skills allow us to move our eyes so we can direct and maintain a steady visual attention on an object ( fixation), move our eyes smoothly from point to point as in reading ( saccades), and efficiently track a moving object ( pursuits).
5. Peripheral vision: The ability to see or be aware of what is surrounding us (our side vision).
6. Visual-sensory integration : Once the visual data is gathered, it is processed and combined in the brain with information from hearing ( auditory-visual integration), balance ( bilateral integration/ gross-motor), posture, and movement (eye hand coordination, visual-motor integration).
7. Visual perceptual skills : The ability to organize and interpret information that is seen and give it meaning is called visual perceptual skills. These information-processing skills include figure-ground, form constancy, spatial relations, visual closure, visual discrimination, visual memory, and visualization.
8. Figure-ground: The ability to recognize distinct shapes from their background, such as objects in a picture, or letters on a chalkboard is called figure-ground.
9. Form constancy: The ability to recognize two objects that have the same shape but different size or position is called form constancy. This ability is needed to tell the difference between "b" and "d", "p" and "q", "m" and "w" are some of these.
10. Spatial relations : The ability to judge the relative position of one object to another ( directionality) and the internal awareness of the two sides of the body ( laterality) is called spatial relations. These skills allow the individual to develop the concepts of right, left, front, back, up, and down. This is needed in reading and mathematics.
11. Visual closure: The ability to identify or recognize a symbol or object when the entire object is not visible is called visual closure.
12. Visual discrimination: The ability to discriminate between visible likeness and differences in size, shape, pattern, form, position, and color is known as visual discrimination. Such as the ability to distinguish between similar words like "ran" and "run" .
13. Visual memory: The ability to recall and use visual information from the past is called visual memory.
14. Visualization : The ability to create or alter new images in the mind is visualization. It is needed in reading and playing sports.

The basic skills used to perform tasks such as reading and using a computer are these visual abilities. According to the American Optometric Association, "Among school-age children, vision disorders affect one in every four. While many of these patients have refractive errors (myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), and/or astigmatism) commonly treated by compensatory lenses, some have additional Problems in the functioning of the vision system that are most appropriately treated with optometric vision therapy".

It has been found that about 40% of all Americans have functional vision deficits. Such kinds of vision Ergonomic Problems not only affect an individual's ability to perform tasks, but it can also affect his/her self-esteem as well.

Different visual abilities such as distance and near acuity, accommodation (eye focusing), binocularity (eye coordination/eye teaming), oculomotor (eye movement), peripheral vision, and visual perceptual skills such as figure-ground, form constancy, spatial relations, visual closure, visual discrimination, visual memory, and visualization are required when a person does the reading task.

People who suffer from Learning Disabilities, Dyslexia, or Attention Deficit Disorder, face yet another obstacle when poor visual abilities are present. Sometimes children who are having visual Problems may be mislabeled as Learning Disabled (LD), Dyslexic, Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), or Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (ADHD).

Visual abilities such as visual acuity, accommodation (eye focusing), binocularity (eye coordination/eye teaming), oculomotor skills (eye movement), eye hand coordination, depth perception, peripheral vision, and visualization are all very important skills that are used in sports such as archery, baseball, basketball, football, golf, gymnastics, hockey, racquetball, shooting, skiing, soccer, tennis, and volleyball.